The University of Divinity observes the notes-bibliography style of referencing outlined in the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style for theology courses. In other areas, such as counselling and education, students will be advised of the styles that are required. This Guide to Referencing provides rules and examples for commonly cited materials (see tabs on left). More complex referencing advice may be found in The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) Online via the UD Library Hub. Click on the link to the CMOS index to locate required topics.
Add a footnote each time you refer to the work of another scholar, whether you quote directly, use the work as a source of information, or critically engage with its ideas. When inserting a footnote, add a superscript numeral after the punctuation. The bibliography lists only those sources mentioned in the footnotes.
When following the rule for notes or bibliography entries you should include all the punctuation, italics, and spacing as they are set out here. Note that second and subsequent citations of a work are abbreviated in a specific way, and that ibid. and op.cit. are not used. When preparing a bibliography, sources should be presented on a separate page and listed in alphabetical order by author surname. Sources without an author should be listed before sources with authors.